At a time when most electronic gadgets come out of huge factories in Asia, Limor Fried works on a different scale.

Fried, a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who lives in New York, builds home-made electronics kits and sells them online. “The idea is that people will learn a little about electronics by assembling the kits and, in the end, have a handmade good that is also useful," Fried said.

Using open-source software, cheap components and fabrication tools that were once available only in large machine shops, people like Fried are finding their own niches in the high-tech marketplace. Many are using the Web to share information and sell their wares. And several start-up companies are now catering to people with the urge to tinker.

Fried, who runs a hardware design business from her apartment, also laser-etches customized designs into iPods and laptops for about $30 each (around Rs1,100). From her website,, she sells plans and kits for electronic devices.

Fried uses the tools of industrial rapid prototyping, including lasers and pre-made electronic circuitry. But new services are also making such tools available to creative people who could not otherwise afford them.

Computer-based prototyping services give people the chance to design cases and enclosures out of materials such as metal and plastic and have them made in a far-off factory for a few dollars. One such service is Ponoko (, and it slightly changes the manufacturing equation.

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Users can sell their plans or finished products through the Ponoko site. The company’s founders, David ten Have and Derek Elley, plan to open fabrication stations around the world, starting with the US.

The site has various products for sale, including coffee tables and a small iPhone stand. But customers have made things as esoteric as watch cases and a bicycle headlamp. The items start around $30 for plans and materials, although for now, all shipping costs are calculated from New Zealand, making them a bit expensive.

Another start-up aimed at a hands-on crowd is Chumby Industries, makers of the Chumby, a small device that looks like a bulky digital photo frame. It uses open-source software to display news, email messages, photos and video. It connects to the Internet wirelessly and allows you to create “feeds" from various information sources.

In contrast to other media players and similar devices, the Chumby’s internal schematics and source code—the programs that make it work—are completely open and available on This means a dedicated programmer or hardware wrangler could make it do almost anything. The device will be available online for about $180 later this year.

Phil Torrone, senior editor of Make magazine, said he did not remember a time when he was not tearing apart electronics. But he said there had been a rise in the popularity of hardware hacking recently, thanks to cheap PCs and components.

“I used to go to swap meets where people were seeing how far they could transmit with their ham radios," he said, recalling meetings where arts and crafts melded with technology to produce home-made radios, custom computers and odd robots. He calls the slow advance of do-it-yourself electronics the “democratization of tech", leading to a world where anyone can run a radio station or build a computer.

Resources such as Torrone’s magazine and its website,, give people the initial impetus to build things. Some then make the leap to selling things.

Etsy ( is a popular e-commerce site for people to sell their wares. Alongside more traditional items, it offers a scattering of tech-oriented accessories, including handmade iPod cases and charms for cellphones like those favoured by Japanese schoolgirls.

Karrie Weaver, a geologist by day, knitted an iPod case out of audio tape (she posted the instructions on her website, All that knitting and sewing is a far cry from the soldering and millwork going on in other corners of the Internet.

None of these projects are likely to make a dent in the profits of Samsung or Sony, but that is not the point. Fried said a more do-it-yourself approach to technology has its own ecological and personal benefits.

“There is a glut of technologies, and most of them do not fit our needs very well," she said. “Basically a great recipe for ‘buy it and toss it’."

“Open hardware brings with it the ability to customize and repair what you have and gives it a higher personal value and usability," Fried added. “Stuff with higher personal value and usability is less likely to just be thrown out as soon as you’re done with it."

©2007/The New York Times

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