The Mappilla community of Kerala went through several violent uprisings before their long history of alienation came to an end
In September 1921, Lord Reading, the British viceroy of India, received from an army general a most urgent telegram. “The situation," warned the military man, “is now clearly actual war, and famine, widespread devastation and prolonged rebellion can only be avoided by prompt measures". He was referring to the horrific communal uprising in Malabar, known as the Mappila Rebellion, so intimidating in its scale and fury that it took six months for the authorities to prevail and restore order. In the end, 2,339 rebels were killed, nearly 6,000 captured, and over 39,000 persuaded to surrender. Much blood had flowed through parts of northern Kerala, featuring “guerilla warfare, plunder, terrorization" and worse, by Mappilas against the colonial state as well as local grandees, in an outburst of economic and religious hostility.