The recent World Trade Organization (WTO) talks came a cropper: Despite intense negotiations over weeks, member states could not agree on critical “agricultural" issues. Under the circumstances, a number of member states are likely to resort to the WTO dispute settlement mechanism to extract more concessions out of scofflaw states. Brazil is one such country—it had won a WTO case against the US on illegal cotton subsidies several years back. But, despite a panel and appellate ruling in its favour, the US had refused to comply and had dangled hopes of further concessions at future WTO talks. As most of us know, those talks came and went, but Brazil’s farmers continue to suffer. So, Brazil is now seriously considering “retaliating" against the US in order to secure compliance with the WTO ruling.