Nine years after it was launched, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) is likely to be replaced with a new mission this budget. JNNURM leaves in its wake lots of unfinished projects and unspent monies. Crucially, the mission failed in its objective of incentivizing governance reform. As the new mission is prepared, the government must learn from JNNURM’s failures and promote genuine co-operative federalism to improve India’s cities.