Violent words, free speech and the Indian Constitution
The Supreme Court ruling in the 1960 Ram Manohar Lohia case is one of the most important free speech judgements in the court's history
Article 19(2) of the Constitution lists eight grounds on the basis of which the state can restrict the freedom of speech and expression. Four of these have to do not so much with the content of speech, or what words are said, but the consequences that speech might have, especially in promoting violence. These are “sovereignty and integrity of India", “security of the State", “public order" and “incitement to an offence".