Parliament Special Session Day 4 Highlights: After receiving a unanimous support in Lok Sabha, women's reservation bill, aka Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam, was passed in the Rajya Sabha on Thursday. 215 MPs vote in favour of the bill, while zero MPs vote against it.
The bill will grant 33 percent seats to women in Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies. The moment arrived after a long wait of more than 25 years.
The bill was first introduced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in the Lok Sabha on Tuesday and it was passed by the lower house on Wednesday. Now, the bill would require a special majority in the upper house. Which means, it must be supported by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of the House “present and voting".
On the same day, Lok Sabha will discuss the success of Chandrayaan-3. Rajya Sabha, on Wednesday, unanimously adopted the resolution congratulating the scientists on the success of Chandrayaan-3.
It was adopted at the conclusion of the discussion on 'India's Glorious Space Journey marked by the successful soft landing of Chandrayaan -3.'
The Parliament's five-day special session began on the 18th of September and will conclude on 22 September. On 19 September, the Indian lawmakers were shifted from the old Parliament building to the new one. PM Modi appealed not to forget the old building as will remain a witness to a myriad of historic decisions and moments. Acknowledging PM Modi's suggestion, Lok Sabha Speaker on Tuesday renamed the old Parliament building “Samvidhan Sadan"
Read the latest updates on this big story here:
Parliament Special Session LIVE: 'Women's Reservation Bill is just an election jumla of BJP' AAP MP Sanjay Singh
While speaking to news agency ANI, AAP MP Sanjay Singh has called Women's Reservation Bill 'an election ‘jumla’ of the BJP. He said, "This bill was pending for 20-25 years and will still not be implemented in the coming 20-25 years...There is a deliberate clause inserted in this bill that, first a Census will be done then delimitation and then the reservation would be given. If you have the intention to give reservations to 33% women then you should implement it for the 2024 elections...This is not a bill for reservations for women but to make them fools...The true character of the BJP is anti-women...This bill is just an election 'jumla'..."
Parliament Special Session LIVE: What is the Women’s Reservation Bill
The Constitution 108th Amendment Bill, 2008 seeks to reserve one-third (33%) of the total number of seats in state legislative Assemblies and Parliament for women. The bill proposes sub-reservation for SCs, STs and Anglo-Indians within the 33% quota. Reserved seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in the state or union territory. The bill says that the reservation of seats for women shall cease to exist 15 years after the commencement of the amendment act.
Parliament Special Session LIVE: A Brief History of Women's Reservation Bill
The last concrete development on the issue was in 2010 when Rajya Sabha passed the bill amid a ruckus with marshals escorting out some MPs who opposed the move to reserve 33 per cent seats for women in Lok Sabha and state assemblies, but the bill lapsed as it could not be passed by Lok Sabha. While the BJP and the Congress have always supported the bill, opposition by other parties and demands from some for quota for backward classes within the women's quota have been key sticking points.
The 2008 Bill, which was passed in Rajya Sabha in 2010 before it lapsed following the dissolution of Lok Sabha, also proposed reserving one-third of all seats in Lok Sabha and legislative assemblies in each state for women. The UPA was in power when the last attempt was made to pass the bill.
Before the failed attempt of 2008-2010, the issue had a chequered history as a similar bill was introduced in 1996, 1998 and 1999. Read more here
Parliament Special Session LIVE: CPI(M) Sitaram Yechury seeks early implementation of women's reservation
CPI(M) general secretary Sitaram Yechury has asserted that early implementation of women's reservation in Parliament and state assemblies was needed. Whiel talking to reporters, he said quotas for women have been awaited for 25 years and wondered if "it will be implemented by 2034". Yechury, who will attend on Thursday the valedictory session of the CPI(M)'s state-level training camp, was approached with queries by journalists at the airport here upon arrival. "Issues like separate quotas for SCs, STs and OBCs were raised when the Bill was last tabled before the Rajya Sabha. These remained unaddressed. It is the job of the government to squarely address these issues," said Yechury, a former member of the Upper House, reacting to the passing of the latest Bill in the Lok Sabha.
Parliament Special Session LIVE: BJD issues three-line Whip to its RS MPs over passage of women's quota bill
BJD (Biju Janata Dal) on Thursday issued a three-line Whip to its Rajya Sabha MPs to be present in the House today and support the passage of the Women's Reservation Bill. The historic Bill, termed as Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam, will now be taken up in Rajya Sabha for passage for the remainder of the session after it was passed with a huge majority in Lok Sabha on Wednesday
Parliament Special Session LIVE: ‘Will vote in favour of passage of Bill’ BJD MP Sasmit Patra on Women's Reservation Bill
While speaking to ANI, BJD MP Sasmit Patra said, "Our leader CM Naveen Patnaik and BJD has always had the commitment that the Women's Reservation Bill be passed in the Parliament...BJD has been making this effort for several years. It is a historic day. It will be passed in the Rajya Sabha and as per the instruction by our leader Naveen Patnaik, a three-line whip has been issued for MPs of BJD. All our MPs will be present in the Rajya Sabha and all of them will vote in favour of the passage of the Bill..."
Parliament Session LIVE: Arjun Meghwal to move Advocate Amendment Bill in Lok Sabha today
A day after the Women's Reservation Bill was passed with 454 members voting in favour of the legislation, Law Minister Arjun Ram Meghwal on Thursday will move the Advocates Amendment Bill, 2023 in the Lok Sabha to be taken into consideration, an official statement said.
The Advocates Amendment Bill, 2023, to amend the Advocates Act, 1961, was earlier passed in the Rajya Sabha.
The Bill repeals certain provisions of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879 which have become obsolete. It also seeks to make the offence of ‘Touting’ punishable by giving judges to publish a list of people who enage in such acts.
A Tout is a person who tries to procure the employment of a legal practitioner in return of any payment. The Court can exclude from its premises any person whose name is included in the list of touts.
The list of businesses also includes a discussion regarding the success of the Chandrayaan-3 mission and other achievements of the nation in the space sector
Parliament Session LIVE: Amit Shah says, ‘women’s empowerment intrinsic to BJP’s work culture’
Union Home Minister Amit Shah on Wednesday said that women empowerment was not a political issue for the BJP but an idea that is intrinsic to its work culture.
Shah made the remarks during a debate on the draft women's reservation Bill in the Lok Sabha on Wednesday. The Bill, which proposes 33 per cent reservation for women in Lok Sabha and state assemblies, was passed with a brute majority in the Lower House on Wednesday.
A whopping 454 members of the Lower House voted for the draft legislation on women's reservation while 2 voted against the motion seeking the Bill's passage.
Shah said the passage of the women's reservation Bill will herald a new phase of "women-led development" in the country.
"This Bill would ensure women's participation in policy-making, which had been pending for years. Women empowerment can be a political issue for many parties but it isn't for the BJP," Shah said, adding that it was at the core of the BJP's working culture.
The minister said that since the formation of this government under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, security, dignity, and participation of women have been the focus areas of the government.
Citing the 'Jan Dhan' accounts as examples of the push for women's empowerment in the country, he said 70 per cent of account holders are women.
He said, "11 crore 72 lakh toilets were built across the country, in a move that went a long way into ensuring the empowerment of women."
Shah informed the Lower House that as many as 85 MPs and 29 ministers belong to the OBC category. Prime Minister Narendra Modi also belongs to the OBC category, the Union Home Minister added.
The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Eighth Amendment) Bill, 2023 was passed after a reply to the motion for passage by Union Law Minister Arjun Ram Meghwal.
The Bill was passed with a brute majority, as 454 members voted in favour of the legislation and two against it. The individual clauses of the draft legislation were also voted on.
Speaker Om Birla announced the eventual passage of the Bill in the Lower House.
The 'Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam' was the first Bill passed by Lok Sabha after it shifted to the new Parliament building on Tuesday.
The Bill was passed by a majority of the total membership of the House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of the House “present and voting".
The division was carried out through the distribution of slips.
Meghwal said “history" was made with the passage of the draft Bill.
Rejecting the Opposition’s criticism of the delayed implementation of provisions of the Bill, Meghwal said the draft legislation ensures transparency. The Bill was passed after a day-long debate, which was initiated by Congress leader Sonia Gandhi.
Intervening in the debate, Home Minister Amit Shah also rejected the Opposition’s contention saying the Bill will follow due procedure and the seats to be reserved will be decided by the Delimitation Commission.
The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Eighth Amendment) Bill, 2023 is expected to be taken up by the Rajya Sabha on Thursday.
The Rajya Sabha had earlier passed the Women’s Reservation Bill in 2010, during the Congress-led UPA government. However, it was not taken up in the Lok Sabha and subsequently lapsed in the Lower House.
The government introduced the women's quota Bill on Tuesday, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi announcing the government’s intention to bring 'Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam'.
The ongoing Special Session of the Parliament began on Monday and will continue till Friday.
"Devil lies in the details..." SAD MP Harsimrat Kaur Badal on Women Reservation Bill
Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) MP Harsimrat Kaur Badal on Wednesday targeted the central government over the census and delimitation clause. She also said that the hopes were built up only to be dashed in 24 hours because in the "Devil lies in the details."
"When it was known that the Women's Reservation Bill was being brought, the hopes were built up till there only to be dashed in 24 hours because in the Devil lies in the details.," SAD MP Harsimrat Kaur Badal said in the Lok Sabha on Wednesday.
'We voted against so that..' AIMIM chief Asaduddin Owaisi on women's reservation bill
Explaining the reason behind opposing the women's reservation bill, AIMIM MP Owaisi said, “We voted against it so that the country knows that there are two members of Parliament, who are fighting for the inclusion of OBC and Muslim in the quota ambit."
‘Some parties didn’t want this bill to be passed' BJP MP Pragya Singh Thakur
BJP MP Sadhvi Pragya Singh thakur hailed the clearance of the women's reservation bill in the Lok Sabha.
"This long-awaited Bill cleared the legislative hurdle in the Lok Sabha today and is on course to becoming a law. However, some parties did not want this Bill passed. From the time of Deve Gowda-ji as PM to Manmohan Singh-ji, they worked against the passage of a draft legislation guaranteeing better representation of women in legislative bodies. They wanted to use women merely as a vote bank. They were never of the belief that women should be accorded their legislative rights," the BJP MP said.
‘Wonderful bill. The only thing missing is..’ former J&K CM on Women's Reservation Bill
National Conference president and former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister, Farooq Abdullah said on Wednesday that the passage of the women's reservation bill in the Lok Sabha marke a landmark achievement, but the only aspect missing was the inclusion of OBC women in the quota ambit, he said.
"I think it (Women's Reservation Bill) is a wonderful Bill. For a long time, 15 years to be precise, we have been waiting for our women to get their rights. The only thing that I would say is missing (from the draft legislation) is the non-inclusion of OBC women (in the reservation ambit). The OBC women should also derive the benefits out of this Bill. All our women should be held at par and treated fairly. The country is as much theirs as it is for us men," the NC leader said.
'Exclusion of OBC sub-quota painful' says BRS MLC K Kavitha
Bharat Rashtra Samithi (BRS) MLC K Kavitha applauded the passage of women's reservation bill in the Lok Sabha.
K Kavitha is one of the key advocates for a legislation providing a fairer representation of women in law-making bodies. While hailing the passage of the women's quota Bill, she added that the exclusion of an "OBC sub-quota" from the draft legislation was "painful".
'Usher in new era of women-led development": YUP CM on women’s reservation Bill in LS
Applauding the clearance of women's reservation bill, UP CM Yogi Adityanath, on Wednesday, congratulated fellow citizens on the passage of 'Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam' or the women's reservation Bill in the Lok Sabha.
"Congratulations to my fellow citizens on the passage of 'Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam' in the Lok Sabha, under the able leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, today. This Bill will further strengthen Indian democracy and usher in a new era of women-led development in 'New India'," CM Yogi Adityanath posted on X.
‘All opposition parties came together. This sets an example of progressive thinking,’ says singer Malini Awasthi
After the women's reservation bill was passed in Lok Sabha on Wednesday, singer Malini Awasthi applauded the move. She said that the move has set an example of progressive thinking in front of the world.
"All parties of the opposition also came together and gave one view... I think that this (Women's Reservation Bill) sets a huge example for the world that what progressive thinking really is... This is a huge start. I want to thank PM and his whole cabinet for fulfilling our long-awaited wish," she said.
‘People say a lot but take no action,’ said BJP MP Locket Chatterjee
After Lok Sabha nod to the women reservation bill, BJP MP Locket Chatterjee said, "It is a historic day...This Bill has come under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. People say a lot but take no action, however, PM Modi did it."
‘History being made,’ Law Minister Arjun Ram Meghwal on women reservation bill
Praising the clearance of the Lok Sabha bill on women's reservation bill, Lok Sabha on Wednesday, Law Minister Arjun Ram Meghwal called the moment of making history.
The Bill was passed following division with 454 members voting in favour of the legislation and two against it on the motion for the passage moved by Meghwal. The amendments moved by opposition members were negatived and there was also voting on clauses of the bill.
‘Stunt meant to mislead,’ Congress leader Sachin Pilot on women's reservation bill
Congress leader Sachin Pilot, on Wednesday, called the introduction of the women's reservation bill a ‘Shugufa', suggesting that it was a "stunt" meant to mislead. He also said that all the parties agree on reservation for women but the Centre maintained suspense and played "hide and seek" on the issue.
Parliament Session LIVE: 27 women MPs participate in debate on women's reservation bill
As the Lok Sabha passed the significant women's reservation bill, around 27 women parliamentarian took part in the debate on women's reservation bill in Lok Sabha on Wednesday.
Parliament Session Updates: Lok Sabha adjourned till Thursday
Parliament Session LIVE Updates: After the passage of the Women's Reservation Bill, Lok Sabha was adjourned till Thursday.
Women Reservation Bill: ‘Great move,’ says former cricketer Mithali Raj
Former Indian cricket captain Mithali Raj, on Wednesday, praised the Indian government's move to introduce the Women's Reservation Bill in the Parliament.
After visiting the new parliament building, Mithali Raj said that the 33 per cent reservation to women would increase the participation of women in the government.
"I congratulate our Prime Minister and our government on the Women's Reservation Bill... With 33 per cent (reservation), the participation of women in governance will increase... It is a great move... We are all very happy," Mithali told ANI.
Parliament Session LIVE Updates: Lok Sabha passed the Women's Reservation Bill motion
The Lok Sabha, on Wednesday, passed the motion concerning the Women's Reservation Bill and is now taking up clauses of the bill.
Parliament Session Updates: Voting underway on clauses of the bill on demand of an Opposition MP
Parliament Session LIVE Updates: After the clearance to the Women's Ammendment Bill, Lok Sabha MPs are voting on clauses of the bill on demand of an Opposition MP.
Parliament Session LIVE Updates: Lok Sabha passes Women's Reservation Bill with 454 votes
To what can be called a historic achievement, Lok Sabha, passed Women's Reservation Bill granting 33% seats to women in Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies. Out of the total parliamentairans, 454 MPs voted in favour of the bill, whereas 2 MPs vote against it.
Parliament Session LIVE: Women's Reservation Bill passed in Lok Sabha today
Parliament Session LIVE Updates: Lok Sabha passes Women's Reservation Bill granting 33% seats to women in Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies
Parliament Special Session LIVE: 'Request all opposition parties, we will fix it,' says Amit Shah on Women's Reservation Bill
Union Home Minister Amit Shah requested all parties to come together to pass the Women's Reservation Bill.
“I request all Opposition parties, if you think something is missing, we'll fix it. But this is a historic achievement. Please let it pass. Let's come together and pass the bill," Amit Shah in Lok Sabha on Wednesday.
Parliament Special Session LIVE Updates: Voting on Women's Reservation Bill begins in Lok Sabha
Parliament Special Session LIVE: Voting on Women's Reservation Bill begins in Lok Sabha today.
Parliament Special Session LIVE: Rajya Sabha adjourned till 21st September
Parliament Speccial Session LIVE Updates: The special session of Rajya Sabha was adjourned till 21st September.
Census and delimitation immediately after 2024 elections: Amit Shah
Parliament Special Session LIVE: Amit Shah counters Rahul Gandhi's remarks
"Those claiming to speak for OBCs should know that it is BJP which gave an OBC prime minister…Some people think secretaries run country, I think government does. There are 85 BJP MPs, 29 ministers from OBC," he reminded.
‘If you support this bill…’: Home Minister Amit Shah addresses Parliament Special Session
“Some people on social media are saying that this bill (women's quota) should not be supported as there is no reservation of OBC, Muslims. If you don’t support this bill, will reservation happen sooner? If you support this bill, then will at least be guarantee..." he said.
‘Only caste census can give the answer to the number of OBC, Dalit, and Adivasi in the country,’ says Rahul Gandhi
"Only caste census can bring forth the number of OBC, Dalit and Adivasi in the country. I have a suggestion for the government. Pass the Women's Reservation Bill. Get the caste census done as soon as possible, and if you are not doing it, we will do it," says Congress MP Rahul Gandhi in Lok Sabha.
Parliament Special Session LIVE: ‘This bill will ensure participation of women in decision-making,’ says Amit Shah
Parliament Special Session LIVE Updates: Union Minister Amit Shah in his speech said that the bill will ensure the participation of women in decision-making, and policy-making in the country.
Parliament Special Session Live Updates: ‘For some parties, women empowerment can be a political agenda,’ says Amit Shah
Parliament Special Session Live: "For some parties, women empowerment can be a political agenda and a political tool to win elections, but for BJP & Narendra Modi it is not a political issue," said Union Home Minister Amit Shah.
Parliament Special Session Live Updates: Women's reservation bill will mark start of new era, says Amit Shah
Parliament Special Session Live: Passage of women's reservation bill will mark start of new era, PM Modi presented vision of women-led progress in G20:Amit Shah in Lok Sabha, said Amit Shah.
Parliament Special Session Live: ‘There has to be a start somewhere’ MP Sumalatha Ambareesh
" There has to be a start somewhere, even we should ask questions, what this bill was not introduced before 2014?...there should be a will and conviction for that and today, PM Modi has shown that he has conviction and the will to bring this changes," said Lok Sabha MP Sumalatha Ambareesh.
Parliament Special Session Live : Women from UP and Rajasthan visit Parliament
Parliament Special Session: After the inauguration of the new parliament building, the BJP has given the responsibility to all the MPs to bring as many women as possible from their respective constituencies to the new Parliament House.
Parliament Special Session Live: ‘Chandrayaan-3 mission commanded a lesser budget than some movies mad on space itself,’ says FM Nirmala Sitharaman
Speaking at the Rajya Sabha assembly, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said that Chandrayaan-3 mission cost only around US $75 million (approximately). She highlighted that the budget was even lower than some movies made on space itself.
‘Very happy that Women’s Reservation Bill is passed,' says Hockey player Rani Rampal
Indian field hockey player Rani Rampal expressed her happiness on the introduction of Women's Reservation Bill. She also expressed her happiness that she got the chance to visit the new Parliament building.
"We would like to thank the government of India for this... We are very happy that the Women's Reservation Bill is being passed. The more the participation of women; the more will our country move forward... Whatever our issues and policies are related to women, they will be discussed, and women will feel that there is someone with them...Prime Minister Modi has always tried to encourage women in every field, be it sports or politics... Many women will get inspired by this," she told ANI.
‘I stand to oppose this legislation,’ says AIMIM chief Owaisi
AIMIM chief Owaisi said that his party opposes the legislation on women reservation. He said that to bring the legislation is to ensure that more women get elected into the Parliament and the state assemblies. "If that is the justification, why has that justification not been extended to the OBC and Muslim women, where their representation in this 'August House' is minimal," said Owaisi.
Parliament Special Session Live Updates: ‘No place in the new building where my wheelchair did not reach’ says paralympic athlete Deepa Malik
After visiting the new parliament building paralympic athlete Deepa Malik said that it is a matter of pride and a great opportunity to come here in the new Parliament building.
“The first thing that I noticed was that there was no place in the new building where my wheelchair did not reach... I am happy that women's reservation is happening. It is a beautiful gift on Ganesh Chaturthi," said Deepa Malik.
Parliament Special Session Live Updates: Amit Shah to speak on women's reservation bill in Lok Sabha
Parliament Session: Union Home Minister Amit Shah will speak on women's reservation bill in Lok Sabha shortly on Wednesday.
Parliament Special Session Live Updates: We stand with INDIA alliance on Women’s Reservation Bill, says AAP
The Aam Aadmi Party, on Wednesday, announced to support its INDIA alliance on its stance on Women's Reservation Bill. The party will discuss and question the government on the nature of the bill and its implementation. However, the party will support the bill at the time of voting on it.
Parliament Special Session Live Updates : 'Those who called it Jumla,' says Union Minister Smriti Irani
In the ongoing discussion on the Women's Reservation Bill, Union and Women Child Development Minister Smriti Irani said that the opposition has atleast accepted that Prime Minister discussed with them about the women reservation bill.
"Today, those who called it Jumla and said that it happened because they wrote several letters for it, at least they accepted that they kept insulting him (PM Modi) but he read each of their communications and discussed it with them," said Smriti Irani.
'When this bill was brought, some people said that it is "our bill', says Smriti Irani
Union Women and Child Development Minister Smriti Irani on Wednesday, said, "When this bill was brought, some people said that it is “our bill".
UPA chairman Sonia Gandhi in an article of the proposed bill had said that "no seat shall be reserved for women for belonging to SC/ST in the third general elections. But the bill brought by this government guarantees reservation to women till 15 years after the implementation of this bill."
Women Reservation Bill LIVE: Key facts about women representation in India
- Around 15% of the total members of the 17th Lok Sabha are women.
- Around 13% of Rajya Sabha MPs are women.
- 42% of BJD MPs and 39% of TMC MPs are women.
- The BJP has 14% women MPs and Congress 12 per cent.
- In the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, the TMC and the BJD fielded the highest proportion of women candidates.
- Across parties with 10 or more MPs in the Lok Sabha, women were as likely to win as men, a report said.
Countries with highest proportion of women MPs have reservation within parties
According to a think tank study, several countries having a high proportion of women representatives do not have laws mandating a quota but there is reservation within the political parties.
Analysis by PRS Legislative Research shows:
Sweden (46%) of the public representatives are women
South Africa 45%
Bangladesh, which has 21% women MPs, has a law providing reservations to women. Out of the 300 seats in the Bangladesh Parliament, 50 are reserved for women.
Women Reservation Bill LIVE: 'Without revolution, evolution is not possible,' says Dimple Yadav
Samajwadi Party MP Dimple Yadav urged the Central government to introduce a sub-quota for OBC, SC, and minorities under the Women's Reservation Bill.
"Without revolution, evolution is not possible. For evolution to take place in our country, it is very important that women from OBC, SC, and minorities get a reservation...", Yadav said.
Women Reservation Bill LIVE: 'This bill is similar to what was envisaged by UPA,' says BJP MP
BJP MP Tejasvi Surya said that the Women's Reservation Bill, on the reservation aspect, is similar to what was suggested and what was envisaged by the earlier UPA government. The MP of South Bengaluru added, "These parties, which did not have a problem with this Bill then, are now suddenly trying to create an issue".
Women Reservation Bill LIVE: What is delimitation and will it impact South Indian states?
Tamil Nadu Chief Minister MK Stalin has said that 'delimitation' is a swinging sword aimed at the heads of South Indian states.
It must be noted that the Women's Reservation Bill mentions that the bill will come into effect after the publication of the census and delimitation or redrawing of constituencies after the bill becomes law.
According to Stalin, if seats in Parliament are increased based on the population then this will reduce the political representation of South Indian states.
"We welcome the Women Reservation Bill but at the same time we request Prime Minister Modi to give assurance that no harm would be done to South Indian people in the name of delimitation," the Tamil Nadu CM said.
The delimitation has raised concerns among the South Indian states as they fear that a lower population in the states as compared to Northern states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar may lead to their unequal representation in the Lok Sabha.
The term 'Delimitation' in India is mainly concerned with the allocation of seats in the Lok Sabha.
Article 81(2)(a) of the Indian Constitution mentions that the number of Lok Sabha seats in a state should be proportionate to the population of the state.
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