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New York City on Friday reported another incident of poliovirus. The polio virus has now been found in around eight different wastewater samples in two adjacent counties north of New York City. According to the city's health official, the polio virus was detected in wastewater. A few weeks ago the virus was found in Rockland County north of the city.

New York state health departments said that the presence of the poliovirus in the city's wastewater suggests likely local circulation of the virus.

Poliovirus; Here's all you need to know

1. What is Polio?

It is a disease often spread in water that mostly affects children under 5. It has mostly been wiped out from developed countries, but outbreaks remain in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and parts of Africa.

2. Symptoms of Polio

Initial symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, and muscle stiffness. Among people paralyzed by the disease, death can occur in up to 10% of cases when their breathing muscles become paralyzed.

3. Polio cases in the US

The presence of the polio virus was detected in wastewater samples collected in early June from Rockland County, where officials on July 21 announced the first case of polio in the US in nearly a decade. The unidentified young adult had a strain of the virus that has since been genetically linked to samples found in Rockland County wastewater, as well to samples in London. On August 1, officials confirmed another case of the virus

4. In the US, polio was declared eliminated in the United States in 1979, more than two decades after vaccines became available.

5. India received ‘Polio-free certification’ from World Health Organization on 27 March 2014, with the last polio case being reported in Howrah in West Bengal on 13 January 2011.

6. England has also identified the polio virus, but health authorities confirmed that they have ‘found no cases of the paralytic disease in people.’

7. Children ages 1-9 in London were made eligible for booster doses of a polio vaccine after British health authorities reported finding evidence of the virus.

8. New York state health officials have also issued a more urgent call for unvaccinated children and adults to get inoculated against polio.

9. This month, the polio virus was also detected in seven Pakistani cities in sewage. The authorities confirmed the presence of the poliovirus in four Khyber Pakhtunkhwa cities after testing the sewage samples of Peshawar, Bannu, Nowshera, and Swat.

10. There are two types of vaccines that can prevent polio:

Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is given as an injection in the leg or arm, depending on the patient’s age. Another one is the Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The polio vaccine protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the poliovirus. Almost all children (99 children to 100 out of 100) who get all the recommended doses of the inactivated polio vaccine will be protected from polio, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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