After weeks of negotiations, the G20 members on Saturday finally reached a conclusion regarding the Ukraine war putting an end to speculations that the summit might end without a declaration. The G20 Leaders’ declaration reiterated the suggestion made by Prime Minister Narendra to Russian President Vladimir Putin that the current era should not be one of war.
The leaders also emphasized the need for the revival of the Black Sea grain deal to ensure the smooth flow of food grains from prominent ports in Russia and Ukraine.
The declaration refrained from directly condemning Russia's incursion into Ukraine, but it stressed that “all states must act in a manner consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the UN Charter in its entirety".
“We note with deep concern the immense human suffering and the adverse impact of wars and conflicts around the world," the G20 New Delhi Leaders’ declaration document reads.
While reiterating their national position, the G20 leaders said, “In line with the UN Charter, all states must refrain from the threat or use of force to seek territorial acquisition against the territorial integrity and sovereignty or political independence of any state."
The G20 leaders, who represent 85% of the global economy, said “the use or threat of using nuclear weapons is inadmissible".
The declaration stated that G20 is not the platform to resolve geopolitical and security issues but acknowledged that these issues posed by the Ukraine-Russia war could have significant consequences for the global economy. Hence, G20 leaders called for the “timely and effective" implementation to ensure “immediate and unimpeded" deliveries of grain, food stuff and fertilisers from Ukraine and Russia.
“We highlighted the human suffering and negative added impacts of the war in Ukraine with regard to global food and energy security, supply chains, macro-financial stability, inflation and growth, which has complicated the policy environment for countries, especially developing and least developed countries which are still recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic disruption which has derailed progress towards the SDGs (sustainable development goals)," the document reads.
However, there were different views and assessments regarding the impact of the Ukraine war.
The leaders also called on Russia to revive the Black Sea grain deal, which allowed movement of food grains from the ports of Russia and Ukraine. The deal, brokered by Turkiye and UK, lapsed in June.
“In this context, emphasizing the importance of sustaining food and energy security, we called for the cessation of military destruction or other attacks on relevant infrastructure. We also expressed deep concern about the adverse impact that conflicts have on the security of civilians thereby exacerbating existing socio-economic fragilities and vulnerabilities and hindering an effective humanitarian response."
In July, Russia pulled out of the Black Sea grain deal, which brokered by the UN and Turkey to ensure the safe transport of products from and to Ukraine, an agricultural hub known as the breadbasket of Europe.
The deal included an agreement to facilitate Russia’s own exports of food and fertiliser, but Moscow said this had not been fulfilled. Since quitting the grain deal, Russia has repeatedly bombed Ukrainian ports and grain stores.
The Black Sea Grain Initiative, which secured the shipment of 32 million tonnes of grains, faced a setback after Moscow reneged on the deal in July and intensified attacks on the infrastructure supporting Ukraine’s grain industry. Russia and Ukraine are two of the world’s largest producers of food grains, including wheat. Food prices have since surged, with the price of wheat, corn and soybeans surging across the globe.
For the second time, PM Modi’s suggestion to Putin about the war in the modern world found mention in the G20 declaration. “Today’s era must not be of war", said the Delhi Declaration.
In September last year, PM Modi told his Russian counterpart at the SCO Summit in Samarkand: “This is not an era of war."
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