The barriers to entry of new firms in the digital space are a bigger concern than the mere presence of digital monopolies
A short video went viral a few days ago. It showed the value of the 15 top global brands from the year 2000 (though the source of the data is unclear). Four companies remained at the top of the league table in the first decade of this century—Coca-Cola, Microsoft, IBM and GE. Google displaced GE in 2011. Then Apple made it to the top four. Amazon followed in no time. Facebook has also muscled into the list. Only Microsoft in the dominant quartet of 2000 has held its ground. GE found itself at the bottom of the pile in 2018. The other big story was the rapid eclipse of Nokia after 2009.